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How to set up fire alarm system

Posted: Tue Mar 24, 2020 8:08 am
by vedard
From beginning to the end, Vedard Security will guide you how to set up fire alarm system. Below is the steps to build a fire alarm system.
Part 1 Laying Pipeline
Common pipeline material: Electric tube pipe contains galvanized steel pipe, welded steel pipe, JDG steel pipe, KBG steel pipe and so on.
Wiring types
the meaning of the various symbols labeld on common wire and cables
NH——Refractory,pass GB12666.6 refractory test;
ZR——Flame retardant,pass GB12666.5 bundle burning test
ZA/ZB/ZC——Flame retardant Class A / Class B / Class C
WD——Low smoke and halogen free
YJ——Cross – linked polyethylene insulation
V——PVC sheathed
S——Twisted pair
B——Single stranded hard line
R—-Single stranded soft line
K——Control Cable
P——With shield
For example: WDZA-KYJY-7*1.5——Low smoke halogen free flame retardant A grade XLPE double jacket 7 core 1.5mm2 control cable.

Common used wiring types:
At least flame retardant wire and cable should be used for weak-current line and fire-resistant cable should be used for the power supply line of the fire alarm system.
alarm circuit——ZR-RVS-2*1.5, NH-RVS-2*1.5, NH-RYJS-2*1.5 etc.
alarm circuit trunk——ZR-RVS-2*2.5, NH-RVS-2*2.5, NH-RYJS-2*2.5 24VDC
power line——ZR-BV-2*2.5, NH-BV-2*2.5, NH-BYJ-2*2.5 etc. 24VDC
power line trunk——ZR-BV-2*4.0, NH-BV-2*4.0, NH-BYJ-2*4.0
multi-line control circuit——ZR-KVV-N*1.5, NH-KVV-N*1.5 etc.
broadcast line——ZR-RV-2*1.5, ZR-BV-2*1.5, ZR-RVVP-4*1.5
telephone line——ZR-RVS-2*1.5, ZR-RVVP-2*1.5, NH-RVVP-2*1.5
open pump line——ZR-BV-2*1.5, ZR-RV-2*1.5, NH-BYJ-2*1.5 etc.
fire hydrant open pump feedback line——ZR-RV-4*1.5, NH-BYJ-4*1.5, ZR-KVV-2*1.5
network line——ZR-RVS-2*1.5, ZR-RVV-4*1.5, cat5 etc.
Sharing tube principle
principle: Different systems, different voltage levels, different current types of lines, should not be laid in the same tube or in the same slot.
For example: strong-current line and weak-current line should not share tube
broadcast line and other line should not share tube
telephone line and other line should not share tube
network communication line and other line should not share tube
alarm circuit line and 24V power line should not share tube
alarm circuit line and open pump line should not share tube
multi-line control line and alarm circuit line, 24V power line should not share tube.
Part 2 Equipment Installationfire alarm system circuit
1. Circuit types
There are ring circuit, T circuit, and mixed circuit
2-wire is generally used for the circuit, some equipment requires ring circuit
Every circuit (loop) can have 100 point, 200 point, or 324 point etc. 10~20% margin should be left for each circuit
2. Detectors
detector types: point type(Photoelectric smoke, ion smoke, temperature, complex, UV flame, combustible gas, dual band, etc.)
line type(Infrared beam, recoverable / unrecoverable temperature sensing cable, air sampling, distributed fiber, light section, etc.)
conventional detector(non-coded)intelligent detector(coded) installation location: point type(distance between ceiling, roof, wall and height from the ground) line type(laying way, distance between the roof , installation spacing) distance between other equipment and beam plate
3. Modules
surveillance module (input module, surveillance relay)
control module(output module, smoke exhaust relay)
combination module (input/output module, dual input module, dual output module, other combination module)
manual alarm button and fire hydrant button(coded/non-coded, telephone jack)
detector module(alarm relay, bus access module)
short circuit isolation module relay module(switch module)
Installation location: in module box
4. Fire display panel
types of fire display panels: 1)LED display 2) analog display panel 3)LCD display installation location of fire display panel on each floor of the building fire display panel wiring: It is connected to fire alarm control panel via RS485 line.
5. junction box, module box
calculate the size of junction box and module box
determine the installation location of the junction box and module box
The modules should be set up centrally.
6. telephone
1) multi-line telephone system
N+1 line system
2N line system
host capacity extension and jack
Bus telephone switchboard
Multi – line telephone switchboard
7. broadcast
1) System components:
recording plate, regional control panel, power amplifier, module, speaker
Power amplifier power capacity selection: Capacity can not be less than 1.5 times the maximum capacity of broadcasts in the range of simultaneous broadcasts.
2) system mode: bus system, multi-line system
Bus-line broadcast system
Part 3 Equipment wiring
1. Detector wiring
2. manual alarm button
1) non-coded manual alarm button
2) coded manual alarm button
3) with jack and without jack
3. fire hydrant button
Fire hydrant button function requirements:Open pump, alarm, lighting
1)non-coded fire hydrant button
2)coded fire hydrant button
Wiring of the pressure switch is similar to that of the non-coded fire hydrant button, just without feedback lighting.
4. Surveillance module
equipment connect to surveillance module: 1) Water flow indicator 2) signal valve 3) non-coded fire hydrant button 4) fire damper 5) pressure switch 6) Water level monitoring 7) other feedback signals
6. Combination module

fire surveillance
Types of combination modules
1) single input / single output module (each with an address point or share an address point)
2) Dual input module (one or two address points)
3) Dual output module (one or two address points)
4) Dual input / dual output module
5) Three input modules
6) four input / two output modules
7) other combinations of modules
The location for the combination module:
1)Single input / single output module – air valve, fire doors, shutter doors, elevators and so on
2)Dual input module – flow indicator + signal valve, monitoring signal concentration
3)Dual output module – non-fire power cut, emergency lighting and so on
4)Dual input / dual output module – shutter doors and so on
5)Three input modules – monitor the signal concentration
6)Four input / two output modules – centralized monitoring and control (eg tower standard layer)
7)Other combinations of modules
7. multi-line control equipment
1) fire pump wiring
2) smoke exhaust fan wiring
Under normal circumstances, the rain valve group of electromagnetic valve, stage fire screen and other important fire facilities should also be set up multi-line linkage. Note: “Fire Regulations” only require fire pumps and fire engines in addition to automatic control, the need for manual direct control.
Part 4 Fire control center equipment
1. Fire control center equipment introduction
1) fire alarm controller (wall-mounted, cubic up, piano-style)
2) fire alarm controller components (host panel, multi-line disk, bus, circuit cards, communication cards, etc.)
3) DC power supply plateaddressable fire alarm
4) fire broadcast and background music host
5) fire telephone host
6) CRT graphics display system
7) UPS uninterruptible power supply
8) Large space fire gun controller
9) electricity leakage fire alarm host
10) Level display
11) other equipment
2. the fire alarm controller capacity calculation Loop capacity (whether the detector / module is coded differently)
Reserve capacity (consider fire partition)
Number of loops Combined with multi-line disc, the number of bus lines Controller capacity
3. multi-line disk, bus disk number calculation 1) multi-line disc Number of linkage points (fire pumps, fire blowers, rain valves, etc.) the point number of each multi-line disk Linkage point arrangement Number of multi-line discs 2)bus disk Number of linkage points (strong cut, emergency lighting, shutter doors, elevators, etc.) the point number of each bus-line disk Linkage point arrangement Number of bus-line discs
Note: fire regulation does not require the setting of a bus disk, but in order to facilitate the operation of some more important equipment (has been set to multi-line linkage point without repeating the bus point), many projects will design the bus, combined with the control module. Commonly need to set the bus linkage point of the equipment are: non-fire power cut, emergency lighting, rolling doors forced landing, elevator landing, bell, fire valve reset.